雅思閱讀填空題典型同意置換題型解讀


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雅思閱讀中的填空題(SUMMARY)一向被考生們認為是“老大難”題型,由于答案僅有既定,又不能胡亂猜想。針對這一扎手題型,本文辛達雅思代報小編就將其讀題和解題的技巧進行分析。

  一、 填空題的讀題與解題

 ?、盘羁疹}主要分為兩類:一種是標題集中爆發在文中一到二個階段,另一種是標題貫穿在文中多個階段,前者下文稱為“無備選項”,后者下文稱為“有備選項”。

 ?、佟盁o備選項”的填空題特征:題干內容散布在原文1-2段中,因而要求考生精確定位題干在原文中的出處,然后主見要填寫原文原詞即可。

 ?、凇坝袀溥x項”的填空題特征:題干內容散布在原文多個階段中,比較零星,找題難度較大;要求考生找出原文原詞后,從備選項表格中找出跟原文原詞同義置換的選項,解題難度較大。

 ?、谱x題“四步走”。

 ?、俚谝徊剑壕x填空題題干的首段首句。

  不管有備選項還是無備選項,首句一般不設空,因而通過劃找首句的關鍵詞,能夠協助考生會原文精確定位命題方位,防止時刻的糟蹋。通常,可以作為關鍵詞回原文定位的包括:人名、地名、機構、時刻、年代、數字、專有名詞。

 ?、诘诙剑禾幚淼谝粋€空格

  假如首句模糊或首句設有空格,就要依照以下2步來處理第一個空格:第一,依據空格前后內容初步判別空格詞性。一般填空題的題干詞性都是名詞、動詞、形容詞和副詞,以前三者為主。第二,劃找“空前空后詞”,這兒所謂的“空前空后詞”不是實際意義上的空前空后詞,而是那些能夠提示空格內容的詞組和結構。

 ?、鄣谌剑撼掷m處理其余空格

  填空題的命題順序也是依照原文行文順序來的,考生依照處理第一個空格的方法持續處理其余空格即可。即便有逆向命題或是亂序,也是少量,而且也只會是兩個近似空格的亂序。

 ?、艿谒牟剑好芮辛粢馔x置換

  填空題百分百考察同義置換——包括題干關鍵詞的同義置換(無備選項)和空格內容的同義置換(有備選項)。同義置換有以下六大種:原文原詞;詞性改變(necessary VS necessity);時態改變(主動VS被動);近義詞(tight VS restricted;evolve VS develop);圖表(原文如有圖表,則有一題答案來自圖表);歸納總結。

  二、以下是真題解析版

  Paper Recycling

  Paper is different from other waste produce because it comes from a sustainable resource: trees. Unlike the minerals and oil used to make plastics and metals, trees are replaceable. Paper is also biodegradable, so it does not pose as much threat to the environment when it is discarded. While 45 out of every 100 tonnes of wood fibre used to make paper in Australia comes from waste paper, the rest comes directly from virgin fibre from forests and plantations. By world standards, this is a good performance since the world-wide average is 33% waste paper. Governments have encouraged waste paper collection and sorting schemes and at the same time, the paper industry has responded by developing new recycling technologies that have paved the way for even greater utilization of used fibre. As a result, industry’s use of recycled fibres is expected to increase at twice the rate of virgin fibre over the coming years.

  Already, waste paper constitutes 70% of paper used for packaging and advances in the technology required to remove ink from the paper have allowed a higher recycled content in newsprint and writing paper. To achieve the benefits of recycling, the community must also contribute. We need to accept a change in the quality of paper products; for example stationery may be less white and of a rougher texture. There also needs to be support from the community for waste paper collection programs. Not only do we need to make the paper available to collectors but it also needs to be separated into different types and sorted from contaminants such as staples, paperclips, string and other miscellaneous items.

  Question 1-7

  Complete the summary blow of the reading passage. Choose ONE OR TWO WORDS from the reading passage for each answer.

  From the point of view of recycling, paper has two advantages over minerals and oil in that firstly it comes from a resource which is (1) and secondly it is less threatening to our environment when we throw it away because it is (2) . Although Australia’s record in the re-use of waste paper is good, it is still necessary to use a combination of recycled fibre and (3) to make new paper. The paper industry has contributed positively and people have also been encouraged by (4) to collect their waste on a regular basis. One major difficulty is the removal of ink from used paper but (5) are being made in this area. However, we need to learn to accept paper which is generally of a lower (6) than before and to sort our waste paper by removing (7) before discarding it for collection.

 ?、傧忍幚淼谝豢誇rom the point of view of recycling, paper has two advantages over minerals and oil in that firstly it comes from a resource which is (1) ,考生應發現空前詞is提示第一空詞性為單數名詞或形容詞。

 ?、谌缓髣澱铱涨霸~,考生應當對paper has two advantages中的two敏感,由于后文很快呈現firstly提示第一空是包含在“第一大優勢”中的,而第一空的空前詞還有a resource,說明第一空要填的詞一定是潤飾resource的。

 ?、刍卦亩ㄎ籸esource呈現在Paper is different from other waste produce because it comes from a sustainable resource: trees.一句中,而resource之前正有sustainable一詞潤飾,顯然是形容詞,跟咱們之前判別第一空詞性是符合的。

 ?、芴羁疹}不必擔心原文原詞讀不懂,考生完全可以在不知道sustainable一詞意思情況下判別出這就是要填入第一空的答案。

 ?、萏羁疹}留意事項:

  留意審題——標題會對每個空格的字數有所約束,假如考生發現自己尋覓的答案字數多余標題限定字數,這就是在給你發出警訊:你的答案找錯了。

  留意判別空格詞性——假如空前詞是比如a或an,就說明空格是單數名詞;假如空前詞是is或are,就說明空格是名詞或形容詞;假如空后詞有and或or,一定要以and或or之后呈現的內容作為定位詞,由于在原文中and或or前后的內容一定是并列呈現的。

  留意“無備選項”填空題多數是填寫原文原詞——考生要對原文的名詞復數、現在分詞、過去分詞看清楚,不要漏填錯填。

  以上是填空題的讀題和解題思路,填空題是考察“同義置換”的典型題型,也是考察考生們對原文細節尋覓和掌握的能力??忌鷤円欢ㄒ跍亓晜淇歼^程中有針對性地積累大量同義置換高頻詞,還要帶著此類題型的“戰略戰術”去研討至少兩套閱讀真題,真實做到技巧和做題相結合的“練兵”,才能找出自己的薄弱點,各個擊破。


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